When Richard Allen was enslaved during the 1700s, the pastor at the church told him and the other enslaved Africans to be patient here on Earth, and the most faithful and patient among them would be able to serve their masters dutifully in heaven. Abraham Lincoln urged Fredrick Douglass to be patient with the Emancipation process and more importantly, the fight to be treated like a human being and a full citizen of the United States. When Thurgood Marshall argued successfully in the Brown v Board case, he suggested that the court order schools to integrate one grade at a time, beginning with kindergarten, over a span of 13 years.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the trends, patterns and the impact of cultural and home country macroeconomic influences on Chinese cross border mergers and acquisitions (CBM as foreign entry strategy for the period of 1998 2011.Design/methodology/approach: Using three regression models, namely, ordinary least squares, the random effects and fixed effects to examine the impact of home country macroeconomic and cultural factors on CBM outflows as an entry mode of Chinese firms.Findings: The findings suggest that CBM as a preferred mode of market entry provides a means for obtaining strategic resources to develop competitive advantages for the Chinese emerging market firms. The regression results indicate that home country macroeconomic and cultural variables, including gross domestic product (GDP), liquidity, interest rates, inflation, acquisitions in resource seeking sectors and cultural distance play an important role in explaining the trends of CBM outflows by the Chinese firms.Research limitations/implications: The results imply that government support to emerging market multinational enterprises (EMEs) to acquire strategic assets and economic policies in the home country play an important role in shaping international expansion behaviour of EMEs through CBM The study demonstrates that outward investments of EMEs are partly a function of the level of economic policies and government support at home. The limitation is that most of the Chinese CBM transactions took place in Asia/Pacific locations.
Social variables include group size, dominance ‘style’, and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech.